While prostate cancer for men and breast cancer for women are not the main causes of death, they are cancers most likely to be diagnosed among seniors Table 2. Self-perceived health Self-perceived health is one of the most useful and reliable indicators available in population health surveys. It has been found to be as good as or better indicator of health status than measures such as functional ability, chronic diseases and psychological well-being Lundberg and Manderbacka, ; it Statistics Canada — Catalogue no.
Self-perceived health declines as people age — in other words, seniors are much less likely to describe themselves as being in very good or excellent health than their younger counterparts Table 2.
This is not surprising given the fact that physical problems tend to increase with age. However, there were no significant changes from to in terms of self-rated health.
Unfortunately, comparable data for years before are not available. One of the strongest socio-economic predictors of self-perceived health and other health indicators is level of education. In all age groups, the higher the level of education, the higher the likelihood of reporting an excellent or very good health Chart 2. Some comparisons between age groups and across different level of education are particularly revealing. The next generation of seniors, that is those aged between 55 and 64, has significantly different characteristics than the current generation in terms of educational attainment.
Thus in the years ahead, as the first members of the baby boom generation turn 65 inthe proportion of seniors with some post-secondary education and with a university degree will increase considerably.
If the positive correlation between the level of education and health remains the same in the coming years, it is likely that a greater proportion of seniors will state that they are in very good or excellent health in the future.
Chronic conditions Some chronic conditions are more likely to affect seniors while others, like asthma or back problems, are prevalent in all age groups Table 2.
Arthritis or rheumatism is the most frequently reported chronic condition among seniors. High blood pressure was the second most common chronic condition among seniors.
Obesity, a factor that is highly correlated with the probability of developing high blood pressure and arthritis Wilkins,has been on the rise during the past years Tjepkema, Unless that trend is reversed, the prevalence of these two chronic conditions will rise over the next years. Finally, older age groups are especially afflicted with eye-related problems cataracts and glaucoma compared to younger persons. Cataracts can result in progressive though painless loss of vision, and if left untreated, surgery may eventually be Statistics Canada — Catalogue no.
With the proportion of the population aged 75 and over increasing at a fast rate, it is expected that the demand for cataract surgery will increase in the future.
Independence — an important concern for seniors — implies the ability to perform daily activities for oneself. Research has shown a strong positive relationship between self-perceived health and the potential to carry out daily activities without limitation or dependence on others Shields and Shoostari, Inone in ten seniors aged 75 and over living in a private household needed someone else to help with their personal care such as washing, dressing, eating or taking medication Table 2.
Only one in individuals aged 25 to 54 were in the same situation. Doing housework is the most problematic activity for seniors. Inone-quarter of individuals aged 75 and over said that they needed help to do their everyday housework. It is not known, however, which types of housework seniors found the most difficult to accomplish alone. It is very probable that many seniors are able to do tasks requiring modest physical effort. On the whole, it appears that until age 75, almost all seniors are able to carry on daily activities on their own, including the preparation of meals.
Difficulties in daily activities An active participation in society might also be compromised if a person has difficulty hearing, seeing, walking, climbing stairs, bending, learning or doing similar activities. All these difficulties, if cumulative, can seriously compromise the quality of life for a person of any age. Many types of physical and cognitive problems can limit seniors in their daily activities. Hearing and seeing correctly, ability to resolve day to day problems and capacity to remember most things also became more difficult tasks among persons aged 85 and over.
On the other hand sleeping problems and feeling pain or discomfort were not as closely associated with age. Injuries Compared to younger persons, seniors are much less likely to get injured — mainly because fewer seniors are taking part in activities in which the likelihood of getting injured is high.
These rates were the lowest observed for all age groups in the population Chart 2. Generally speaking, mental health is intimately related to physical health. Not only is mental health a factor influencing physical health but it is also influenced by physical health itself Beaudet, As people age, most individuals develop some physical health problems, which can have an impact on morale.
Are seniors in a poorer psychological state than younger people? Many indicators, such as the level of psychological distress and well-being, show that it does not seem to be the case. Psychological distress among seniors Psychological distress includes feelings of nervousness, sadness, hopelessness, unworthiness, and other negative emotions.
Psychological distress declines as people age higher scores indicate higher level of psychological distress Chart 2. However, in the oldest age group of seniors aged 75 and overthis declining trend reverses, and while the score for psychological distress is significantly lower than that for the younger population, it equals that for pre-seniors ages 55 to While resilience and life experience might favour the decrease in the level of psychological distress as people age, physical problems and the higher risk of social isolation might explain why people over 75 expressed higher distress scores.
Psychological distress includes feelings of nervousness, sadness, hopelessness and other negative emotions. The scale ranges from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 40 maximum level of psychological distress. A simpler way of examining the association between age and psychological distress is to observe the responding patterns on one item included in the psychological distress score — the frequency at which the persons felt sad or depressed in the last month.
That proportion was lower in the 55 to 64 age group, and was at the lowest for persons aged 65 to 74; Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. Persons aged 75 and over were slightly Val DOr (Janvier) - Various - The Other Side (CD) likely than those aged 65 to 74 to report that they felt sad or depressed none of the time in the last month. Seniors level of well-being The relationship between age and well-being Chart 2.
Inseniors were more likely than younger people to have higher scores on the well-being scale. This applied to men as well as women.
However, the level of well-being was slightly lower among seniors aged 75 and over than to year-olds. A good illustration of that is the distribution of responses across age groups for one of the items included in the well-being scale.
Participants in the Canadian Community Health Survey of mental health were asked if, in the last month, they felt satisfied with what they were able to accomplish, they felt proud of themselves.
The scale ranges from a minimum of 3 to a maximum of maximum level. Kiecolt-Glaser et al. Contrary to the two indicators of mental health presented above psychological distress, well-beingthere is no tendency for older seniors to express a higher level of stress than those in the 65 to 74 age group. In fact, stress continuously declines with age. Not surprisingly, the sources of stress were somewhat different for younger and older persons.
Among to year-olds, the major source of stress in their lives was work, while seniors reported that it was health Chart 2.
Sense of mastery Sense of mastery refers to the level of control a person feels they have over their life. People with a low level of mastery report, for example, that they have little control over the things that happen to them and that there is little they can do to change many of the important things in their lives.
Mastery is an important psychological resource for a person. Research indicates that individuals with higher levels of mastery have greater success in the labour market Dunifon and Duncan, ; mastery has also been reported to have a protective effect against early death Pennix, van Tilburg, Kriegsman et al. Moreover, individuals with lower levels of mastery are at higher risk of depression Beaudet, and are less efficient in managing stress Ross and Broh, Most people report that they have a somewhat high level of control over their lives Table 2, Val DOr (Janvier) - Various - The Other Side (CD).
However, this sense of control decreases significantly with age. Many factors are associated with this phenomenon, including physical health status, low level of income and other factors associated with aging. But even after taking into consideration these indicators, age remains a significant correlate of a lower sense of mastery Milan, It is possible that aging is associated with a more realistic evaluation of the possibility of being in total control of life.
Three different types of behaviours are examined here: physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Obesity, an indicator of personal behaviour and a factor associated with the development of certain chronic conditions like high blood pressure, is also examined. The Canada Food Guide recommends that an individual should eat between 5 and 10 servings of vegetables a day. In every age group, women are more likely than men to eat the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
Physical activity index Physically active individuals are generally in better health and also have a greater chance of remaining so in future years. Among other positive outcomes, people who are physically active are less susceptible to a number of chronic conditions and emotional problems. Not surprisingly, older seniors are less likely than people in younger age groups to be physically active Table 2.
However, the differences between younger and older Canadians are not as great as they could have been expected to be. This is especially the case for men. After people reach their mids, physical activity levels decline significantly.
Two-thirds of individuals in the 75 and over age group were physically inactive, compared to half of people in the 25 to 54 age group. For many seniors, this decline in physical activity is a consequence of the onset of some disability or limitation. A higher proportion of men than women are physically active. On a provincial basis, seniors in British Columbia were the most physically active Table 2.
One possible reason for higher level of physical activity in British Columbia is the more clement weather, which makes physical activities like walking for exercise or gardening easier to accomplish. Obesity In the past 25 years, the percentage of the population that can be considered obese has increased across all age groups Chart 2.
This disparity is consistent with the difference observed in the levels of physical activity for men and women aged 75 and over. While obesity can result from physical inactivity, it can reduce the possibility of engaging in these activities. A person is considered obese if their body mass index is over Body mass index is calculated by dividing a person's weight by their height squared. Smoking It is a well-known fact that smoking is the number one cause of preventable death in Canada.
Seniors are less likely than people in younger age groups to smoke regularly Table 2. These changes over time are reflected in the proportions of individuals who are former smokers. In all age groups, the proportion of former smokers was greater in This is especially true for women. This reflects the fact that smoking among younger women became much more popular in the late s and s Health Canada, While men aged 25 to 54 are more likely to smoke than women, this difference vanishes in the older age groups.
That being said, the percentage of senior men who are former smokers is significantly Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. However, seniors are less likely than younger people to use alcohol regularly Table 2. The regular use of alcohol cannot necessarily be considered an unhealthy behaviour since it can contribute to lowering the probability of developing certain illnesses and is associated with higher likelihood of reporting excellent or very good health Shields and Shoostari, However, heavy drinking might be more problematic.
Heavy drinking can be defined as having had five or more drinks on one occasion at least once a month in the past 12 months. Seniors are much less likely than people in younger age groups to be heavy drinkers Chart 2. Education and health-related behaviours One of the most important factors associated with the adoption of a healthy lifestyle is educational attainment. Generally speaking, the higher the level of education, the lower the likelihood of smoking, being physically inactive, not eating enough fruit and vegetables and being a heavy drinker.
Includes those who have had five or more drinks on one occasion at least once a month in the past 12 months. Also, the proportion of highly educated seniors who smoked was lower than that of seniors with the lowest level of educational attainment Chart 2.
However, the relationship of education to heavy drinking is not as clear as it is for smoking and physical activity Table 2.
However, that relationship disappears in older age groups. Among seniors aged 65 to 74, there was no relationship between level of education and the likelihood of being a heavy drinker. Again, these observations have consequences for future generations of seniors.
As stated above and as detailed in Chapter 3, Section 3. Therefore, if more educated persons retain their healthy habits as they age, two general effects can be anticipated: a lower proportion of smokers among seniors and a higher level of physical activity.
However, it is not clear how the overall level of heavy drinking among seniors, which is somewhat low, will evolve in the years ahead. Good access to health services is necessary not only in emergency situations but as a means of preserving good health. On a broader scale, the aging of the population implies challenges to the health care system, which will be faced in the coming years with higher demand for services.
Seniors not only use health care services more frequently, they also need different types of services. It provides information not only on Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. Seniors with a regular doctor Medical follow-up is particularly important for seniors, so having a regular medical doctor, while an asset for all individuals, is crucial for seniors.
Inseniors were significantly more likely to have a regular doctor than people in the 25 to 54 age group Table 2. Frequency of medical doctor consultations The frequency with which seniors visit medical doctors is, not surprisingly, much higher than for younger people. In younger age groups, the frequency with which women consult a medical doctor is higher than for men Table 2. While many consultations with a medical doctor might be a sign of health problems, no consultations at all is not necessarily an indication that everything is fine.
Individuals who never visit a doctor might not be aware of a problem that might develop in the future, or of an existing situation that could be aggravated if not taken care of immediately. The proportion of individuals who had not seen a medical doctor in the past 12 months is significantly lower for older than for younger persons.
Seniors experiencing problems accessing the health services Many of the health problems for which seniors consult their doctors are more serious than those for younger people. Hence, seniors facing problems accessing the health services they need might be particularly vulnerable. However, the proportion of seniors who reported problems accessing the health services was significantly lower than that for to year-olds Chart 2.
There are some indications that in the younger age group, people with higher incomes are less likely to experience problems accessing the health care system Chart 2. For seniors however, individuals in the lowest income quartile were not less likely than those in the highest income quartile to report having difficulties in accessing the health services they needed.
Seniors consulting various types of health professionals Some health situations are associated with age such as vision or hearing problems while others are frequent across the various age groups for example, back problems. These differences are reflected in the non-medical services to which seniors and non-seniors have access Table 2.
Val DOr (Janvier) - Various - The Other Side (CD) problems are almost inevitable with the process of aging, and the proportion of individuals who will require glasses will increase abruptly in 20 years, when one person out of five will be aged 65 and over. Many individuals who try to prevent illness, to maintain or to improve their health use alternative health care services. Alternative medicine consists of treatments and health care practices that are not widely taught in medical schools, not routinely used in hospitals, and not typically reimbursed by health benefit plans Millar, Alternative practitioners include massage therapists, homeopaths, naturopaths and acupuncturists, among others.
The proportion of individuals who made used of alternative or complementary medicine was significantly smaller in older than younger age groups Chart 2. However, these differences between age groups are not necessarily a sign that the demand for alternative health services will decrease as the population ages.
In contrast, many aging baby boomers are likely to use or to have used alternative services. When they enter their senior years, and as they develop more health problems, alternative or complementary medical care could be a solution to which some of them turn.
Also, individuals with higher incomes and higher levels of educational attainment — which will characterize a greater proportion of seniors in the years ahead - are generally more likely to use alternative medicine.
Hence, the aging of the population Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. Insurance coverage often makes the difference in terms of disease prevention or access to health services. This proportion was not significantly different than that for the 25 to 54 age group Table 2. However, there were significant differences in term of insurance coverage for medications by provinces. Seniors are somewhat more disadvantaged compared to the working-age group in terms of dental coverage.
It is especially true for women. The likelihood that seniors had insurance for dental expenses in their working years is somewhat low compared to the current generation of employees and workers. As discussed above, seniors are very likely to be affected by vision problems. However, they are much less likely than individuals in the younger age groups to be covered by insurance. Again, there were significant differences between provinces in terms of coverage.
Finally, individuals who were the least likely to require hospitalization were the most likely to have insurance for hospital charges. Age is not the only factor affecting the likelihood of being covered by insurance. The differences were smaller in terms of insurance for medical prescriptions but those who were in a less favourable position to pay for their medications i.
Besides health insurance, all households, irrespective of age, spent the most on prescribed drugs, and other medical equipment and appliances. After these two, the order of spending on dental services, eye care, and other health care and medical services varied across age groups—more in than in However, couples and unattached individuals in the plus group in showed a consistent order of out-of-pocket spending on health: prescribed drugs, other medical and health care services, dental services, and eye care.
In this section, we examine the financial characteristics of Canadian seniors using a number of measures, including sources of income, wealth, incidence of low-income, food insecurity and expenditures. Emphasis is placed on changes over time. All income figures in this section are in constant dollars and are rounded to the nearest The same upward trends were evident among seniors who did not reside with other family members.
The incomes of seniors not only increased in absolute terms, but have also increased relative to the incomes of individuals in younger age groups. Improvements in the relative incomes of seniors were more evident among men than women Charts 2.
Women in most age groups10 experienced considerable income gains through the s and s and the gains of seniors were more modest relative to women in younger age groups.
A larger change occurred among women as a result of their rising labour force participation rates. Among men, this share increased from Improvements in the financial situation of seniors have also been the result of expanded coverage of private occupational pension plans and improvements in the features of such plans. Cohorts retiring as late as were unlikely to have significant years of contribution since they had entered the labour market in the s and s.
In contrast, coverage was wider among subsequent cohorts, who also made contributions over a greater portion of their working lives. As shown in Chart 2. The share of total aggregate income received from these sources has declined since the early s as income from public and private pensions increased.
The share of total aggregate income received from investment income12 declined precipitously since the early s, in large part because of the drop in interest rates over this period. However, by this share had rebounded to The labour force participation rate of senior men increased since the mids see Chapter 3, Section 3. But while the share of senior men with earnings increased through the s, average earnings did not.
The increasing prevalence of part-time and part-year employment may have contributed to this trend. Low income Rising income levels among seniors have benefited those in lower income categories, contributing to a well-documented decline in the incidence of low-income among seniors in Canada.
The incidence of low-income can be measured in a number of different ways, but all show the same downward trend since the early s. Between andthe share of seniors in low income declined from These trends were not simply the result of moving large numbers of seniors from just below to just above the low-income cut-offs, as the income gains among lower income seniors were substantial.
Myles, Low-income cut-off after tax, base. The decline in the incidence of low income has been evident among seniors in all types of living arrangements, although the incidence remains highest among senior women living alone Tables 2. Across the ten provinces, the incidence of low income among seniors is highest in British Columbia and Quebec Table 2. Low income from an international perspective From an international perspective, the incidence of low-income among seniors is now lower in Canada than in most other industrialized countries, including Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom Table 2.
This is a marked change from the s when the incidence in Canada was among the highest of the industrialized countries. McDonough and Berglund, In this context, the duration of low-income is an important consideration. Over the six year period from to Food insecurity Food insecurity means that the availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods is limited or uncertain, or the ability to acquire food in socially acceptable ways is limited and uncertain.
In part, this may reflect the fact that seniors generally do not have responsibilities for children in the household. Wealth Improvements in the financial characteristics of seniors are not only evident in terms of the annual income, but also in terms of their wealth, defined as total assets minus total debts. The median wealth of families headed by someone aged 55 to 64 increased by Increases in the median wealth were evident among seniors residing alone at Home ownership For many Canadians, their home is one of their largest assets and since the early s the share seniors with such an asset has increased Table 2.
Among senior households headed by someone aged 65 to 74, the share residing in owned accommodation increased from While most senior households who own their home are mortgage-free, the share with a mortgage increased between and Expenditures Given that the incomes of seniors have increased over the past 20 years, what are they doing with their money? To address this question, we turn our attention to their expenditures. Couples in this age group spent larger shares of their income on personal consumption and income tax in than they did in This was also Statistics Canada — Catalogue no.
A recent study showed that Canadians in general are spending more and saving less than they did in the past Chawla and Wannell, Unattached senior women spent more of their income on personal consumption than unattached senior men and married couples.
Because the incomes of unattached women were lower than those of other demographic groups, accommodation took a bigger proportional bite out of their income while income taxes took a smaller bite. Accommodation, transportation and food account for about two-thirds of each consumption dollar spent by senior households Table 2.
Recreation, household operations and health care expenditures account for about 15 to 20 cents of each consumption dollar. Among couples and unattached individuals, the share of each consumption dollar spent on clothing decline by about 1 or 2 cents, and the share spent on food declined by about 4 to 9 cents.
The incomes of seniors increased over this period and because individual can only eat so much, the share allocated to food declined.
In addition, some of the reduced expenditure on food and clothing may be attributed to a drop in prices for these products brought about by increased competition in the retail and wholesale markets, the opening of discount outlets, and changes in tariffs and quotas on imports. Seniors spent larger shares of their consumption dollars on other items.
The share of each dollar spent on health increased by about 3 to 5 cents between anddepending on age and family type. Health insurance premiums accounted for the largest share of these costs, followed by prescription drugs, medical equipment and appliances, dental services, eye care, and other health care and medical services. Finally, seniors spent a larger share of their consumption dollar on recreation in than they did inwith an increase of about 2 to 4 cents of each dollar.
Inflation and seniors Given that the consumption patterns of seniors and non-seniors differ and that prices for different types of products vary, a question that arises is whether inflation affects seniors differently than the rest of the population. Separate consumer price indices can be constructed for the senior and non-senior populations based on the consumption patterns of each group Chiru, Between andthe growth rate of the consumer price index CPI for seniors generally followed the changes of the CPI for non-seniors households.
In some periods, prices increased at a faster rate for seniors while at other times they increased faster for non-seniors. Overall, the evidence indicates that the consumer price index released monthly by Statistics Canada is a good indicator of the changes in prices for the seniors population.
Satisfaction with finances We now turn to the subjective assessments that seniors have of their financial situation. The transition from work into retirement is a key step in the life course and involves financial changes. Whether or not individuals and families are able to maintain their standard of living after retirement is an important issue. To gauge the success of individuals in this respect, the General Social Survey asked retirees if their financial situation was better, worse or about the same in retirement as it was in Statistics Canada — Catalogue no.
One-third said their financial position had worsened. June April Feb. Involuntary retirees that is, those who did not want to retire and individuals who were in fair or poor health when they retired were more likely than other individuals to say their financial situation had worsened.
Involuntary retirees most often left the labour force because of health problems. Looking at the financial situation of seniors more broadly, seniors have more positive assessments of their finances than individuals in younger age groups.
This is the case within all income categories. In a survey, respondents were asked to rate their satisfaction with their finances on a scale of 1 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level of satisfaction. The same pattern is evident within higher income categories.
Similar findings have been reported in previous research. In this section we examine the extent to which seniors are victims of crime and the extent to which they feel safe and secure in their communities. Information is first presented on violent incidents that were reported to police. This information provides an understanding of the victim, accused and incident characteristics of family-related violence against seniors.
In addition, information is drawn from the Homicide Survey. In the second half of the section, self-reported victimizations of crime are presented. Senior victims of violent crime Consistent with previous years, persons aged 65 years and over were the least likely age group to be victims of violent crime in Older male victims were victimized at a rate of perand females at a rate of perpopulation.
Injust under 4, incidents of violence against persons aged 65 or older were reported to police services in Canada Table 2. Common assaults include behaviours that do not result in serious injury, such as pushing, punching and slapping, and threatening to apply force. Male adult children and spouses were most often accused in family-related violence of seniors.
The average age of spouses accused of victimizing their partners was 66 years of age, while the average age of adult children was 40 years of age. About eight out of ten older victims assaulted by an adult child were living with the assailant. Eighteen of these homicides were committed by a family member and 25 were committed by a non-family member.
Police reported the remaining seven homicides as unsolved. Despite annual fluctuations, the rate of homicide against seniors was lower through the s and s than it was through the s and the s Chart 2. Between andthe average annual rate of homicide against seniors was The motive underlying homicides against seniors differed depending on whether the accused was related to the victim.
Many homicides committed against seniors stemmed from a history of prior abuse. It is important to note that the incidence of crime derived from self-reports are different from the incidence derived from police reports for a number of reasons.
In9. Senior men were slightly more likely than senior women to have been the victim of a crime, at Individual victimization rates19 Victimization rates are another way to measure crime. They show the number of criminal incidents experienced for each 1, people in a given population. The victimization rate declines steadily across older age groups, and was 12 violent incidents per 1, persons aged 65 or older. The victimization rate for theft of personal property also declines across age groups Chart 2.
Among persons aged 65 or older, there were 22 incidents of theft of personal property per 1, persons in this age group, compared to a rate of among persons aged 15 to This translates into an estimatedwomen andmen in Canada 15 years of age and older. Spousal violence affects all socio-demographic groups. However, there are certain segments of the population that are more vulnerable to spousal violence than others: those who are young, who live in a Statistics Canada — Catalogue no.
According to the General social survey, it is evident that individuals under the age of 25 are more likely than those who are older to be victimized by their intimate partner. Perceptions of local police Compared with individuals under the age of 45, seniors generally have more positive assessments of the job done by their local police, although they have similar views to those aged 45 to 64 years of age.
About two-thirds of seniors believe that Val DOr (Janvier) - Various - The Other Side (CD) local police are doing a good job enforcing the laws, ensuring the safety of citizens and treating people fairly Table 2. Smaller shares of individuals under age of 45 years believe that the local police are doing a good job in these respects. Similarly, seniors are more likely than younger individuals to believe the local police are doing a good job in responding promptly to a call, in being approachable and supplying information on reducing crime.
Excludes Quebec. Excludes Newfoundland. Table 2. The term normal was not used in CCHS. Percentage who said that they were not free of pain or discomfort. Percentage with uncorrected hearing problems, i. Persons who are somewhat forgetgul, very forgetgul or unable to remember anything at all.
Vision problem not corrected. Dextirity problem requires special equipment or help. Regularly have trouble going to sleep or staying asleep. Percentage who are partially understood or not understood by strangers or friends. Respondents were asked: "Thinking about the amount of stress in your life, would you say that most days are not at all stressful, not very stressful, a bit stressful, quite a bit stressful, extremely stressful?
Includes households with children or relatives and other mixes. Includes economic families and unattached individuals. An economic family is defined as a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common law or adoption.
An unattached individual is a person living either alone or with others to whom he or she is unrelated, such as roommates or a lodger. Families in which the major income earner is 65 years or older. For data prior tothe head of family is 65 years or older.
Families in which the major income earner is less than 65 years old. For data prior tothe head of family is less than 65 years old.
Other sources of income, such as provincial and territorial tax credits, GST and HST tax credits, and other government transfers are not included in the table. A relative measured based on a low-income cut-off defined as one-half of the median family income after tax in each country.
Cited in Picot and Myles, Cited in Morissette, Zhang and Drolet, Income less expenditures. Includes couples with no children or other relatives. Recent retirees are individuals who retired during the years to inclusive and who were 50 years of age or older when they first retired. Respondents were asked: "Compared to the year before your retired, would you say that you are now better off financially, worse off, or about the same"?
Violent crime includes violations causing death, attempting the commission of a capital crime, sexual assaults, assaults, violations resulting in the deprivation of freedom, and other violations involving violence of the threat of violence. Current spouse includes legally married and common-law partners. Siblings includes natural, step, half, foster or adopted brother or sister. Extended family includes all others related to the victim either by blood or by marriage.
Unknown includes cases where the relationship between the victim and the accused is unknown. Note: Data are not nationally representative. Table 6. Excludes offences where the relationship between the victim and the accused is unknown.
Only the percentage who perceive justice agencies as doing a good job is shown. Health-adjusted life expectancy is the number of years in perfect health that an individual can expect to live given the current morbidity and mortality conditions. Health-adjusted life expectancy uses the Health Utility Index HUI to weight years lived in good health higher than years lived in poor health. See: Shields and Shoostari, Labour Force Survey. A body mass index BMI of 30 or more indicates that a person is obese.
Instead, it asks about expenses such as government or private insurance health premiums, prescription drugs, dental and eye care, and services provided by other medical professionals. Throughout this section, senior married couples are those in which children or other relatives are not present. Cansim Table Dividend income consists of dividends from taxable Canadian corporations as stocks or mutual funds. Interest and other investment income includes interest from Canada Savings bonds, bank accounts, treasury bills, investment certificates, term deposits, earnings on life insurance policies, and foreign interest and dividend income.
The bank rate affects not only the rate households pay on personal loans, mortgages and other loans, but also what they receive as return on their savings and investments. Ininformation was not available to separately identify band housing.
The Homicide Survey began collecting information on all murders in and later added data collection on all manslaughters and infanticides in When a homicide becomes known to police, the investigating officer completes a Homicide Survey and forwards this information to the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.
The Homicide Survey represents a complete count of the number of homicides known and reported by police services in Canada. For further discussion of these reasons, see Statistics Canada, An overview of the differences between police-reported and victim-reported crime, During the s, access to post-secondary education became easier for a much broader range of people.
With the first baby boomers now entering their sixties, the proportion of seniors with a university degree or some post-secondary credentials will increase significantly. Section 3. Many implications are associated with this shift in the educational composition of the senior population. As documented elsewhere in this report, and as innumerable studies have repeatedly shown in the past Kingston et al. For example, people with a higher education also have better health, lower chances of being in low income, lower likelihood of social isolation, and so on.
Most of these correlations are valid for seniors as well as for people under That said, this chapter is mainly about the current generation of seniors. In section 3.
Are recent retirees enjoying their retirement? How many recent retirees are likely to work for pay after their first retirement? Some types of skills, such as the knowledge and wisdom that come from a lifetime of experiences, cannot be easily captured by survey data and are beyond the scope of our discussion. Educational attainment There have been considerable changes in the levels of educational attainment of older Canadians over the past 20 years.
Between andthe share of men aged 65 or older with less than high school declined from The same trends were evident among women aged 65 or older Chart 3. Changes in educational attainment have been particularly striking among persons aged 55 to Among men in this age group, the share with less than high school declined by half, from Among women in this age group, the share with a postsecondary certificate or diploma increased from Chart 3.
At that time, the postsecondary education system in Canada was expanded and young people had more opportunities to obtain postsecondary credentials than was previously the case. In the years ahead, the share of seniors with a postsecondary education will continue to increase as the baby boom generation replaces previous generations of seniors.
Higher levels of educational attainment are associated with many different outcomes, such as health behaviours, volunteering and giving, voting and political involvement, and literacy. Hence, the changing educational composition of seniors may be associated with a shift in the behaviours, expectations and experiences among the population aged 65 and older.
Literacy skills enable people to seek out, understand and apply information and help them make informed decisions regarding their health, housing, finances and other matters. Literacy skills are also a foundation upon which the acquisition of other proficiencies, such as computer skills, is built. In andsurveys were conducted to evaluate the literacy skills of Canadian adults. Each respondent completed an international validated evaluation designed to measure proficiency in four domains: Prose literacy — the knowledge and skills needed to understand and use information from texts including editorials, news stories, brochures and instruction manuals.
Document literacy — the knowledge and skills required to locate and use information contained in various formats, including job applications, payroll forms, transportation schedules, maps, tables and charts. Numeracy - the knowledge and skills required to effectively manage the mathematical demands of diverse situations.
Problem solving — problem solving involves goal-directed thinking and action in situations for which no routine solutions exist. Proficiency in each domain is measured on a continuous scale, each of which starts at zero and increases to a theoretical maximum of points. IALSS scores are also grouped into proficiency levels representing a set of tasks of increasing difficulty. For problem solving, the highest level is 4. Performance at Level 3 or higher is generally associated with positive outcomes, such as increased civic participation, increased economic success and independence, and enhanced opportunities for lifelong learning and personal literacy.
Individuals at proficiency Levels 1 and 2 typically have not yet mastered the minimum foundation of literacy needed to attain higher levels of performance. There is no threshold level yet established for problem solving. The other Similarly, almost two-thirds of seniors The same pattern was evident in the domain of document literacy Table 3. Compared with individuals in younger age groups, seniors were far more likely to have low levels of literacy and numeracy Table 3.
This relationship between age and literacy is evident in other countries and remains even when other factors, such as educational attainment, are taken into account. The evidence in Chart 3. The share of individuals aged 56 to 65 at prose literacy Level 1 at This could be the result of differences in their experiences earlier in life, such as greater participation in postsecondary education. Comparing data at two points in time, individuals who were aged 57 to 66 in had an average prose literacy score of points, while individuals who were in that age group in had an average score of points.
The increase of 25 points over nine years suggests that a generational effect may indeed be at play. With all age groups, individuals with higher levels of educational attainment have stronger literacy skills than those with lower levels of attainment Chart 3. Among individuals aged 61 to 65, for example, Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. Job-related training Participation in formal, job-related training In this section, we examine formal and informal job-related training taken by older workers.
Information on workers aged 65 or older is not available. Historically, the tendency has been for workers of older ages to have lower participation rates in jobrelated training than younger workers.
This is true of Canada and other industrialized countries. Labour economists have generally agreed that expansion and improvement of skills for younger workers likely yield significant labour market benefits and returns on training investments. However, for older workers who have more work experience and who are closer to retirement, the benefits of training are perhaps less obvious.
Injust under one-quarter A slightly larger share of women than men aged 55 to 64 participated in training, at In all age groups the likelihood of participating in formal job-related training is associated with higher levels of educational attainment.
Among workers aged 55 to 64, Much of this increase can be attributed to an actual increase in participation in jobrelated training, but some is also likely due to changes in how training data were collected. Among workers aged 55 to 64, the share participating in formal job-related training increased from A number of factors may account for this trend.
Because of the relationship between age and training, this might have pushed up the training participation rate. Changes in other characteristics of older workers, specifically higher levels of educational attainment, may also be having a positive impact on their participation rates. The number of hours participants spend in training is an important and complementary measure to the participation rate.
Across all age groups, average hours of training in were highest at hours per participant for workers aged 25 to 34 and lowest 88 hours for workers aged 55 to 64 Table 3. Between andthe number of hours of training rose substantially among training participants aged 55 to 64 — from 43 to 88 hours for those aged 55 to 64 and from 82 to 97 hours for those aged 45 to Employers may sponsor or support training in many ways, such as providing the training, paying workers for the costs of training taken off-site, allowing workers to alter their work hours to enable them to take training and so on.
When defined this way, Again, the likelihood of taking such training varied with age, as Self-directed learning Job-related training is not restricted to formal training. To better perform their tasks or to develop skills for a future job, workers can also learn on their own in an informal manner, for example, by consulting books or manuals, seeking advice from others, or observing someone perform a task.
The Adult Education and Training Survey asked workers whether they had done any of these activities during the four weeks preceding the survey. Older workers were less likely than younger workers to have participated in self-directed learning.
While Older workers who engaged in self-directed learning activities did many of the same activities as younger workers. Older workers were slightly less likely than their younger counterparts to seek advice from others, perhaps a reflection of their experience or more senior position within the workplace.
The need or desire to take job-related training can be considered as a measure for being willing or ready to engage in a training activity, and allows us to identify unmet training needs and wants. Unmet training wants or needs where most prevalent among workers aged 25 to 34 Nonetheless, about one in six workers aged 55 to 64 said there was training they had wanted or needed to take but did not do so. Individuals who had participated in formal, job-related training in the previous year were more likely than non-participants to have unmet training wants or needs.
This was the case across all age groups. Money and time were the primary factors that prevented workers from taking the additional training they wanted or needed. Among older workers who had not taken training, about one-third Workers aged 55 to 64 were less likely than those in younger age groups to say family responsibilities and affordability posed were barriers to training. This is not surprising given that older workers are less likely to have children requiring child care and typically have higher earning than their younger counterparts.
Conversely, older workers were more likely than younger workers to say they had not been able to find the training they wanted and that health problems pose a barrier to training Chart 3.
This section presents labour market information about these seniors as well as about older workers aged 55 to 64 and younger age groups. Emphasis is placed on changes over time in labour force participation rates, part-time employment, self-employment, and so on. Age composition of the labour force The aging of the population documented in chapter one is certainly reflected in the age composition of the labour force. Just underCanadians aged 65 and older participated in the labour force in —of them employed and another 9, actively looking for work.
Altogether, this group accounted for 1. Another 1. This age group accounted for As more and more individuals in the baby boom generation reach their sixties over the next decade, the share of the labour force comprised of older workers will increase see Chapter 1 for details.
Labour force participation rates Over the last 30 years, there have been significant changes in the extent to which older Canadians participate Val DOr (Janvier) - Various - The Other Side (CD) the paid labour force. The trends have been different for men and women. Between the mids and the mids, the labour force participation rates1 of older men declined significantly. Between andthe rate declined from However, since the mids participation rates have rebounded upwards.
Between andthe participation rate among men aged 55 to 64 increased by about 8 percentage points, while among men aged 65 to 69 it increased by about 5 percentage points Chart 3. Among older women, labour force participation rates have increased steadily since the mids, reflecting the continued entry of women into the paid labour force.
Particularly large increases have been evident since the lates. Among women aged 55 to 64, the participation rate increased from Seniors with a university degree are much more likely to participate in the labour force than those with lower level of education Chart 3. Inthe participation rate of university degree holders aged 65 and over was 4. Although of a lesser magnitude, the correlation between the level of education and participation in the labour market is in the same direction for individuals aged 55 to However, this scenario is likely to occur only if the future behaviours of nearseniors who have post-secondary credentials are similar when they turn 65 years old to those of the current generation of seniors with post-secondary credentials.
Part-time employment From the mids to the mid- s, there was an increase in the share of older men employed on a part-time basis. Since the mids, the incidence of part-time employment among older men has remained quite stable. Most older Canadians who work on a part-time basis do so because of personal preferences.
Other reasons for working part-time include business conditions, the inability to find a full-time job, health considerations, and personal or family responsibilities. Temporary employment3 Among paid employees aged 55 to 64, the share employed in temporary jobs increased modestly between andrising from 8. In absolute terms, approximately 10, women and 19, men aged 65 or older worked in a temporary job in Through the late s, about one-fifth of employed men aged 55 to 64 were self-employed.
It is important to note that self-employed individuals typically retire at older ages then paid employees and the trend towards retirement at younger ages through the s and s was primarily among paid employees more on this below. Consequently, as paid employees increasingly retired from the labour force in their late fifties and early sixties, a larger and larger share of the individuals remaining in the labour force was self-employed.
This share declined by about 7 percentage points to For example, individuals with long job tenure may have been more likely than others to have retired early during the s given the pension contributions and savings they accumulated over their working lives.
Alternatively, short job tenures may have become more prevalent because early retirees returned to paid employment after their initial retirement.
The share of employed women aged 55 to 64 with job tenures of 20 years or more increased from 3. This was part of a long-term trend towards lower levels of unionization among men in all age groups Morissette, Schellenberg and Johnson, Conversely, the share of women aged 55 to 64 who belonged to a union or were covered by a collective agreement increased from This too was part of a long-term trend towards higher levels of unionization among women in older age groups.
As a result, the rate of unionization is now comparable among men and women in older age groups. Over the last two decades, an increasing share of older women are employed in public sector industries, such as health, education, social services and government, and this has been an important factor underlying rising rates of unionization among them.
In contrast, a declining share of older men is employed in goods-producing industries, such as manufacturing, and this has been an important factor underlying declining rates of unionization among them. Consequently, this section will not be only about seniors, nor about all seniors.
The focus is placed instead on seniors or near-seniors who are current retirees or who are experiencing their transition from the labour market to retirement, given that retirement is more a process than an event.
The first part provides background information about how the retirement transition has evolved in recent years. Median age of retirement8 The median age of retirement has fallen dramatically in the past two decades.
From the mid s to the mid s, it hovered around age But in the late s, it started dropping quickly, and continued to do so until hitting a low at This decline was most likely initiated in by lowering the minimum age at which one could begin to draw benefits from the Canada Pension Plan—from age 65 to 60, with reduced benefits. The continued drop in the median age at retirement may have been related to widespread government cutbacks and corporate downsizing in the s, combined with early retirement incentives.
Inthe median age of retirement was The median age at retirement for men was close to that for women until the mid s. After that, the median age declined faster for women than for men.
Inthe median age of retirement for men was Sincepublic sector employees have consistently retired at a younger median age than those in the private sector or the self-employed.
The difference in retirement age between employees in the private and public sectors began to diverge in when public sector workers began retiring earlier. The median age at retirement among public sector employees i. The median retirement age of employees in the private sector remained fairly stable from to but began a long-term decline afterward.
Byit had dropped to Among the self-employed, the median retirement age has remained relatively steady since the mid s, fluctuating between Voluntary or involuntary retirement While some workers retire voluntarily from their jobs, others have to retire for reasons over which they have little or no control — for example their employer had a mandatory retirement policy, they were unemployed and could not find another job, their job was downsized.
Generally speaking, involuntarily retirement is associated with less positive outcomes for retirees, such as lower enjoyment of life in retirement Schellenberg, Turcotte and Ram, a. Level of education is strongly associated with the likelihood of a voluntary or involuntary retirement.
Mandatory retirement policies were the reason for retirement for one out five recent retirees who left the labour force at 65 years old and over. Retirees with a higher level of education were more likely to report that they had retired because it was financially possible to do so, and were much less likely to say that it was because of their own health, or because their job had been downsized.
In general, individuals with higher education have jobs with higher salaries and are more likely to be covered by an employee sponsored pension plan, or to have accumulated sufficient savings during their career.
As the first Baby Boomers approach retirement, it is likely that more and more individuals will be in a position to make a more positive transition into retirement. Possible incentives for continuing to work With possible shortages in the labour market looming, policy makers and employers are searching for new ways to retain older workers on the job. Could older workers potentially be interested in staying longer in the workforce if certain choices were offered to them?
The General Social Survey asked retired respondents what factor might have influenced them to continue working Table 3. In addition, just under one-fifth would have been influenced by more vacation leave. Results were similar for men and women. It is no longer holding its form for a comfortable sleep. The entire bed drops to one side.
This was our 3rd night in different Comfort Inns in 4 days. This one definitely wasn't in the same great accommodation experience. We were told the hotel was full but could give us a quiet room. We ended up right beside the office and under the stairs - not quiet. The continental breakfast had what I would usually eat. Overal the hot is clean andcomfortable. Onlo major issues being lack of any sort of dining room, poor continential breakfast and no work out facilites Brought to you by expedia.
We stayed here during my son's hockey tournament. Staff were friendly - would probably stay again if I had to. Decent hotels in the North are hard to find but this location is clean and was a good business stay location. Room was worn but clean 1 requirement and fairly comfortable bed.
Staff spoke little English but we sorted things out. Staff were friendly and helpful. I stayed 2 nights for business. Everything was what I expect at Comfort Inn. The room was big, good bathroom, free wireless internet worked well, good light breakfast in the lobby. Very good coffee machine. The lobby is small, so you need to use one of the trays to take breakfast back to your room.
We grew up in Val d'Or and decided to go back, and reminice about old times living there. As soon as we went in the front door we could smell a little bit of cigarette smoke, but alot more down the hall. Our first room's ariconditioner did not work so they gave us a new room right away. The staff was Typical Comfor Inn design -- check was not particularly welcome and our booking had been misplaced and then eventually found but we were advised that it was a smoking room - no way.
Eventually got a room which did not have a regrigerator- we have stayed in 30 motels in the las t 6 weeks and even the worst ones This is a hotel that has seen is better days. As soon as you enter the hotel, you smell smoke everywhere in the hallway as they still allow a good portion of the rooms to be smoking. Carpet was dirty and quality of the bed, below average. The free breakfast is nothing beside seal muffin or seal donuts and smelly Rooms are very clean - staff are very friendly and knowledgeable.
Really had a very good stay. Rate includes free continental breakfast - free internet that works very well. Will go back Brought to you by tripadvisor. My first impression of this Hotel was bad from the minute I walked in. There was one young girl behind the reception desk dressed extremely casually jeans and a sweatshirt very inapropriate for a Hotel bearing the Comfort Inn's name no matter how small or remote.
The Hotel is in desperate need of some renovations including the door to my room which did not lock unless you pulled and pushed The rooms were clean and the staff helpful.
The breakfast bar was convenient, if a little sparse. The rooms are fairly clean except for chairs and hard water stains in toilets. The staff are ok to deal with except that the check-in was painfully slow. Internet is weak on the 2nd floor.
However, it is probably much better than most other of the budget The hotel is very average, the rooms are clean but there is no services at all in the hotel. Also the bathroom is big but the walls are ugly. Also the hotel is not very secure as there is a lot of exit where people can get in. The breakfast is also average, you don't have area to eat it Nice continental breakfast.
Central to shopping and dining. The staff was not to friendly went to get information at the desk twice and i really seemed to bother the employe. Good place to stay, in Val d'Or. It is close to the shopping malls and restaurants. Renovated part of the town so I think more agreable. Parking is good. I recommend, Brought to you by tripadvisor. The hotel is located just 2 km from the city centre and 7 km from the Val-d'Or Airport. Many local attractions and businesses can be found in the vicinity as well as a number of restaurants, theatres and shops.
Various leisure activities such as skiing, hiking and golfing are offered at the Belvedere Park situated nearby. Guests can choose from spacious rooms, equipped with coffee-makers Hotel Features Comfort Inn Val d'Or provides complimentary wireless Internet access, a computer station, free self parking, Val DOr (Janvier) - Various - The Other Side (CD) a hour front desk.
Room Amenities LCD Make yourself at home in one of the 81 air-conditioned rooms featuring LCD televisions. Your room comes with a pillowtop bed. Complimentary wireless Rooms Make yourself at home in one of the 81 air-conditioned rooms featuring LCD televisions. Your room comes with a pillowtop bed Comfort Inn Val D'or offers these services: restaurant, hotel, motel, lodging.
Brought to you by ourbis. Brought to you by gusto. Visitors will enjoy a great day skiing, golfing or taking a walk in beautiful Belvedere Park. With an assortment of theaters, restaurants and specialty shops, there is always something to do in the Val D'Or area. This Val D'Or hotel offers many services and amenities, including free coffee, free local calls, free weekday newspaper, free high-speed Internet access, afternoon tea and daily Brought to you by skooshca.
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Be the first Weblocal. Other Reviews from the web English. Wi fi September 11, only issue i ve experienced in my two days vaery bad connection WI FI but most of the time not at all. Comfort with a smile August 22, Spent one night here on a business trip. OK Hotel - Ridiculous Price August 22, The hotel itself is not bad - staff were friendly and accommodating, breakfast was decent, room was clean and comfortable.
Nice hotel in city area August 21, The room was too costly for a small town like that. Very well maintained and friendly great room and b May 19, Very well maintained and friendly great room and breakfast very good ,they had fruits that were fresh ,internet worked excellentgood locationvery very clean and quiet.
Hotel in valdor April 29, Dirty we found hair all over bathtub a fan was on floor with 2 cords to plug it I. Nice renovated hotel to stay, hot breakfast too April 28, I always stay there when required Weekend stay April 12, Stayed at this Confort Inn with my two kids for this weekend. April 05, no frills, clean, renovated motel.
Service with a smile but without substance March 13, This place was recently renovated and became a Comfort Inn, it stated it had Free Wifi and it only worked in the lobby. Wi-Fi qui ne fonctionnait pas.
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