Louis on 11 April [N 2] the various parties hammered out all of the details of the new concept. As part of this meeting, they also added the concept of a regiona purely administrative level that was not part of the addressing scheme. Regional hosts would handle any stragglers in the network maps, remote systems that had no local network hosts.
They then divided up the US into ten regions that they felt would have roughly equal populations. By May, Jennings had early versions of the new software running. BBS file that listed network hosts for each node.
For instance, an operator might want to forward all mail to St. Louis through a single node, node BBS would then include a list of all the known systems in that area, with instructions to forward mail to each of those nodes through node On 12 June the core group brought up 10C, and most Fido systems had upgraded within a few months. Sometime during the evolution of Fido, file attachments were added to the system, allowing a file to be referenced from an email message.
During the normal exchange between two instances of FIDONET, any files attached to the messages in the packets were delivered after the packet itself had been up or downloaded. It is not clear when this was added, but it was already a feature of the basic system when the 8 February version of the FidoNet standards document was released, so this was added very early in Fido's history. The New Concepts - Over The Rainbow (Special Edited Version) / same (Vinyl) a sysop meeting in Dallas, the idea was raised that it would be nice if there was some way for the sysops to post messages that would be shared among the systems.
The tosser produced a file that was similar or identical to the output from the normal netmail scan, however, these files were then compressed and attached to a normal netmail message as an attachment. This message was then sent to a special address on the remote system. After receiving netmail as normal, the scanner on the remote system looked for these messages, unpacked them, and put The New Concepts - Over The Rainbow (Special Edited Version) / same (Vinyl) into the same public forum on the original system.
In this fashion, Rush's system implemented a store and forward public message system similar to Usenetbut based on, and hosted by, the FidoNet system. Another called TECH soon followed. By the early s, echo mail was carrying over 8 MB of compressed message traffic a day, many times that when uncompressed. Echomail did not necessarily use the same distribution pathways as normal netmail, and the distribution routing was stored in a separate setup file not unlike the original ROUTES.
At the originating site a header line was added to the message indicating the origin system's name and address. SEENBY prevented the message from looping around the network in the case of misconfigured routing information. Echomail was not the only system to use the file attachment feature of netmail to implement store-and-forward capabilities.
Similar concepts were used by online games and other systems as well. For instance, the best time to forward mail in the US was at night, but that might not be the best time for European hosts to exchange.
Efforts towards introducing a continental level to the addressing system started in At the same time, it was noted that some power users were interested in using FidoNet protocols as a way of delivering the large quantities of echomail to their local machines where it could be read offline.
These users did not want their systems to appear in the nodelist - they did not necessarily run a bulletin board system and were not publicly accessible. In October the last major change to the FidoNet network was released, adding zones and points. Zones represented major geographical areas roughly corresponding to continents. Points represented non-public nodes, which were created privately on a BBS system. Point mail was delivered to a selected host BBS as normal, but then re-packaged into a packet for the point to pick up on-demand.
Points remain in use to this day but are less popular than when they were introduced. Although FidoNet supported file attachments from even the earliest standards, this feature tended to be rarely used and was often turned off. File attachments followed the normal mail routing through multiple systems and could back up transfers all along the line as the files were copied.
A solution was offered in the form of file requestswhich made file transfers driven by the calling system and used one-time point-to-point connections instead of the traditional routing.
Two such standards became common, "WaZOO" and "Bark", which saw varying support among different mailers. Both worked similarly, with the mailer calling the remote system and sending a new handshake packet to request the files. Late in the evolution of the FidoNet system, there was a proposal to allow mail but not forum messages from these systems to switch into the FidoNet structure. FidoNet started in and listed nodes by the end of that year.
Steady growth continued through the s, but a combination of factors led to rapid growth after These included faster and less expensive modems and rapidly declining costs of hard drives and computer systems in general.
By Aprilthe FidoNet nodelist contained over 20, systems. At that time it was estimated that each node had, on average, about active users. The New Concepts - Over The Rainbow (Special Edited Version) / same (Vinyl) these 4 million users in total, 2 million users commonly used echomail, the shared public forums, while aboutused the private netmail system.
Throughout its lifetime, FidoNet was beset with management problems and infighting. Much of this can be traced to the fact that the inter-net delivery cost real money, and the traffic grew more rapidly than decreases caused by improving modem speeds and downward trending long-distance rates.
As they increased, various methods of recouping the costs were attempted, all of which caused friction in the groups. The problems were so bad that Jennings came to refer to the system as the "fight-o-net". As modems reached speeds of Bythe bulletin board market was reeling as users abandoned local BBS systems in favour of larger sites and web pages, which could be accessed worldwide for the same cost as accessing a local BBS system.
This also made FidoNet less expensive to implement, because inter-net transfers could be delivered over the Internet as well, at little or no marginal cost. But this seriously diluted the entire purpose of the store-and-forward model, which had been built up specifically to address a long-distance problem that no longer existed.
The FidoNet nodelist started shrinking, The New Concepts - Over The Rainbow (Special Edited Version) / same (Vinyl), especially in areas with a widespread availability of internet connections. This downward trend continues but has levelled out at approximately 2, nodes. Telnet, Rlogin, and SSH are being used between systems. This means the user can telnet to many BBS worldwide as cheaply as ones next door. Also, Usenet and internet mail has been added, along with long file names to many newer versions of BBS software, some being free-ware, resulting in increasing use.
Nodelists are no longer declining in all cases. FidoNet is governed in a hierarchical structure according to FidoNet The New Concepts - Over The Rainbow (Special Edited Version) / same (Vinyl), with designated coordinators at each level to manage the administration of FidoNet nodes and resolve disputes between members. Network coordinators referred to as " Button Men " are responsible for managing the individual nodes within their area, usually a city or similar sized area.
Regional coordinators referred to as " Underbosses " are responsible for managing the administration of the network coordinators within their region, typically the size of a state, or small country. Zone coordinators referred to as either " Dons " or " Godfathers " are responsible for managing the administration of all of the regions within their zone.
The world is divided into six zones, the coordinators of which appoint themselves or representatives to the positions of "International Coordinators" of FidoNet referred to as " La Cosa Nostra ". The six zone "International Coordinators", along with their Counselors also known as their " Consiglieres "form the twelve person body known as " FidoNet Central". FidoNet was historically designed to use modem-based dial-up POTS access between bulletin board systems, and much of its policy and structure reflected this.
The FidoNet system officially referred only to the transfer of Netmail —the individual private messages between people using bulletin boards—including the protocols and standards with which to support it.
A netmail message would contain the name of the person sending, the name of the intended recipient, and the respective FidoNet addresses of each. The FidoNet system was responsible for routing the message from one system to the other details belowwith the bulletin board software on each end being responsible for ensuring that only the intended recipient could read it.
Due to the hobbyist nature of the network, any privacy between the sender and recipient was only the result of politeness from the owners of the FidoNet systems involved in the mail's transfer. It was common, however, for system operators to reserve the right to review the content of mail that passed through their system.
Netmail allowed for the attachment of a single file to every message. This led to a series of piggyback protocols that built additional features onto FidoNet by passing information back and forth as file attachments.
These included the automated distribution of files and transmission of data for inter-BBS games. By far the most commonly used of these piggyback protocols was Echomailpublic discussions similar to Usenet newsgroups in nature.
Echomail was supported by a variety of software that collected up new messages from the local BBSes' public forums the scannercompressed it using ARC or ZIPattached the resulting archive to a Netmail message, and sent that message to a selected system.
On receiving such a message, identified because it was addressed to a particular userthe reverse process was used to extract the messages, and a tosser put them back into the new system's forums. Echomail was so popular that for many users, Echomail was the FidoNet. Private person-to-person Netmail was relatively rare.
FidoNet is politically organized into a tree structure, with different parts of the tree electing their respective coordinators.
The FidoNet hierarchy consists of zonesregionsnetworksnodes and points broken down more-or-less geographically. Each zone is broken down into regions, which are broken down into nets, which consist of individual nodes. Zones are used for othernets ; groupings of nodes that use Fido-compatible software to carry their own independent message areas without being in any way controlled by FidoNet's political structure.
Using un-used zone numbers would ensure that each network would have a unique set of addresses, avoiding potential routing conflicts and ambiguities for systems that belonged to more than one network. FidoNet addresses explicitly consist of a zone number, a network number or region numberand a node number.
For example, consider a node located in Tulsa, OklahomaUnited States with an assigned node number islocated in Zone 1 North AmericaRegion 19, and Network The region was used for administrative purposes, and was only part of the address if the node was listed directly underneath the Regional Coordinator, rather than one of the networks that were used to divide the region further.
FidoNet policy requires that each FidoNet system maintain a nodelist of every other member system. Information on each node includes the name of the system or BBS, the name of the node operator, the geographic location, the telephone number, and software capabilities.
The nodelist is updated weekly, to avoid unwanted calls to nodes that had shut down, with their phone numbers possibly having been reassigned for voice use by the respective telephone company.
After the release and extensive world tour in —78, Blackmore decided that he wanted to take the band in a new commercial direction away from the "sword and sorcery" theme. Bonnet resigned to pursue a solo project, culminating in the album Line Up, featuring a number of contemporary hard rock alumni, including Jon Lord, former band mate Cozy Powell and Micky Moody of Whitesnake.
The album yielded a UK top ten hit "Night Games". Bonnet's considerable vocal prowess did not go unnoticed and has since enjoyed variable degrees of success with MSG and Alcatrazz, among others. It also contained the guitar piece, "Maybe Next Time". The successful supporting tour skipped the UK completely and focused on the American market. The album featured the single "Street of Dreams". The concert was also filmed. By AprilRainbow was disbanded. However, Blackmore turned his attention to his long-time musical passion, Renaissance and medieval music.
Rainbow was put on hold once again after playing its final concert in Esbjerg, Denmark in The concert consisted of songs from the era. Coheed and Cambria. AV Club. Retrieved Rock Sound. Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved May 10, Another cut, "When Skeletons Live," is more uptempo and melodic.
Artist Direct. Rouge Network. March 15, Retrieved August 11, Sony Music Entertainment. The A. Entertainment Weekly : Retrieved 24 January Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on The NewReview. Time Out New York. The Boston Globe. April 12, Drowned in Sound. BBC Music. April 2, The Guardian. Retrieved January 25,
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