Silver and its alloys are used in cranial surgery to replace bone, and silver—tin—mercury amalgams are used in dentistry. Silver is very important in electronics for conductors and electrodes on account of its high electrical conductivity even when tarnished.
Bulk silver and silver foils were used to make vacuum tubes, and continue to be used today in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, circuits, and their components.
Printed circuits and RFID antennas are made with silver paints,   Powdered silver and its alloys are used in paste preparations for conductor layers and electrodes, ceramic capacitors, and other ceramic components. Silver-containing brazing alloys are used for brazing metallic materials, mostly cobaltnickeland copper-based alloys, tool steels, and precious metals. The basic components are silver and copper, with other elements selected according to the specific application desired: examples include zinc, tin, cadmium, palladium, manganeseand phosphorus.
Silver provides increased workability and corrosion resistance during usage. Silver is useful in the manufacture of chemical equipment on account of its low chemical reactivity, high thermal conductivity, and being easily workable. Silver crucibles alloyed with 0. Copper and silver are also used when doing chemistry with fluorine. Equipment made to Серебро at high temperatures is often silver-plated. Silver and its alloys with gold are used as wire or ring seals for oxygen compressors Серебро vacuum equipment.
Silver metal is a good catalyst for oxidation reactions; in fact it is somewhat too good for most purposes, as finely divided silver tends to result in complete oxidation of organic substances to carbon dioxide and water, and hence coarser-grained silver tends to be used instead. In the gas phase, glycol yields glyoxal and ethanol yields acetaldehydeСеребро, while organic amines are dehydrated to nitriles.
The photosensitivity of the silver halides allowed for their use in traditional photography, although digital photography, which does not use silver, is now dominant. The photosensitive emulsion used in black-and-white photography is a suspension of silver halide crystals in gelatin, possibly mixed in with some noble metal compounds for improved photosensitivity, developing, and tuning.
Colour photography requires the addition of special dye components and sensitisers, so that the initial black-and-white silver image couples with a different dye component. The original silver images are bleached off and the silver is then recovered and recycled. Silver nitrate is the starting material in all cases. The use of silver nitrate and silver halides in photography has rapidly declined with the advent of digital technology.
From the peak global demand for photographic silver in , troy ounces or They are used in conductive inks for printed electronics, and have a much lower melting point than larger silver particles of micrometre size. They are also used medicinally in antibacterials and antifungals in much the same way as larger silver particles. Pure silver metal is used as a food colouring.
It has the E designation and is approved in the European Union. Photochromic lenses include silver halides, so that ultraviolet light in natural daylight liberates metallic silver, darkening the lenses. The silver halides are reformed in lower light intensities. Colourless silver chloride films are used in radiation detectors. Silver is also used for its antibacterial properties for water sanitisation, but the application of this is limited by limits on silver consumption.
Colloidal silver is similarly used to disinfect closed swimming pools; while it has the advantage of not giving off a smell like hypochlorite treatments do, colloidal silver is not effective Серебро for more contaminated open swimming pools.
Small silver iodide crystals are used in cloud seeding to cause rain. Silver compounds have low toxicity compared to those of most other heavy metalsas they are poorly absorbed by the human body when digested, and that which does get absorbed is rapidly converted to insoluble silver compounds or complexed by metallothionein. However, silver fluoride and silver nitrate are caustic and can cause tissue damage, resulting in gastroenteritisdiarrhoeafalling blood pressurecramps, paralysis, and respiratory arrest.
Animals repeatedly dosed with silver salts have been observed to experience anaemiaslowed growth, necrosis of the liver, and fatty degeneration of the liver and kidneys; rats implanted with silver foil or injected with colloidal silver have been observed to develop Серебро tumours.
Parenterally admistered colloidal silver causes acute silver poisoning. In large doses, silver and compounds containing it can be absorbed into the circulatory system and become deposited in various body tissues, leading to argyriawhich results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Argyria is rare, and so far as is known, does not otherwise harm a person's health, though it is disfiguring and usually permanent. Mild forms of argyria are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis.
Silver ions damage the metabolism of bacteria even at such low concentrations as 0. This effect is lost in the presence of sulfur due to the extreme insolubility of silver sulfide.
Some silver compounds are very explosive, such as the nitrogen compounds silver azide, silver amideand silver fulminate, as well as silver acetylidesilver oxalateand silver II oxide. They can explode on heating, force, drying, illumination, or sometimes spontaneously. To avoid the formation of such compounds, ammonia and acetylene should be kept away from silver equipment. Salts of silver with strongly oxidising acids such as silver chlorate and silver nitrate can explode on contact with materials that can be readily oxidised, such as organic compounds, sulfur and soot.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For the use of silver as a medication, see Medical uses of silver.
For other uses, see Silver disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of silver.
Main article: Silver halide. Play media. Main article: Organosilver chemistry. French Rococo coffeepot; ; height: John Dryden. Further information: Silver mining. Main article: Medical uses of silver. Main article: Silver nanoparticle.
GHS hazard statements. GHS precautionary statements. Pure and Applied Chemistry. Retrieved 17 December In Janecek, Milos; Kral, Robert eds. The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st ed.
CRC press. Trigg; Edmund H. Immergut Encyclopedia of applied physics. VCH Publishers. Retrieved 2 May Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv Gemini Observatory. Retrieved 1 August The Road to Trinity.
Morrow, NY: Morrow. Archived from the original on 8 February Check your history". Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 11 November Space Science Reviews. Bibcode : SSRv Geophysical Research Letters. Bibcode : GeoRL Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Silver-halide recording materials: for holography and their processing. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. Archived from the original on 31 January Organic Syntheses.
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When you return to goldprice. The main chart can provide over four decades worth of silver price history. In addition, the interactive charts can be used to examine historical silver prices by the ounce or kilo and in numerous currencies besides dollars. For example, looking at a silver price chart going back several months, if prices keep making higher highs and lower lows, then an uptrend may be present and prices could potentially continue higher.
In another example, looking at historical silver price data can also potentially help investors identify areas of support that could be solid buying opportunities. Using the main interactive chart below, you can easily view four decades worth of silver price history. This rapid and significant ascent in the price of silver could potentially have been fueled by significant risk aversion and concerns over the possible effects of massive quantitative easing measures to prop up the economy.
Silver, like gold, has been considered a reliable store of wealth and value for centuries. The metal has been used as a medium of exchange in many societies, and carries the same reputation for reliability to this day. One of the major attractions to silver is its lack of counterparty risk and its inherent value. Unlike a fiat, or paper currency, silver cannot be printed at will. Fiat currencies have historically lost value over time, and hard assets like silver may potentially hold their value in spite of declining paper money values.
This can potentially make silver especially attractive during periods of rising inflation. During such periods, the overall cost of goods and services rises, and the purchasing power of paper currency may contract. Silver, and other hard assets, may potentially hold their value better or even possibly rise in value as price pressures climb. Silver, unlike other times in its history, may potentially benefit from several key factors including an ongoing rise in industrial demand as well as central bank monetary policies and geopolitics.
In the last decade, global central banks have fought off a slowing economy using ultra-low rates and massive QE. Some would argue that these tools have been successful, while others may differ in their opinion.
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